Changes in Sensation, Pain, and Balance – A Preliminary, Multi-Center Study

Wendy Volkert, MSPT, Ahmed Hassan, PT, MS, Mohamed A. Hassan, PT, MHS, Vicki L. Smock, PT, Justin P. Connor, PT, Becky McFee, PT, Shayne K. Ferguson, PT, MHS, PhD, GCS, CWS, Thomas J. Burke, PhD
Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, Vol. 24(2) 2006


Study Summary

All of the 272 patients who qualified for this study experienced foot pain and/or discomforting foot sensations and impaired balance. 128 of the patients were diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Patients received an average of 18 treatment sessions that included Anodyne and manual physical therapy. The study was conducted in 8 separate physical therapy clinics.



More than 90% of patients who received Anodyne treatments, as described in the study, obtained significant foot pain relief, including:

  • Initial discomforting foot sensations were relieved by 77%
  • Patients said they were in extreme pain before Anodyne treatment but in only moderate pain afterwards
  • Foot pain relief was the same regardless of whether the patients had diabetes or not